Based on the derived function, a maximum VHP value of 3197.5 mL-H2 d−1 L−1reactor was predicted for a sOLR of 0.97 g-Total carbohydrates g-VS−1 h−1. The maximum value for VHP, as measured using analytical methods (2283.8 mL-H2 d−1 L−1reactor for a sOLR of 1.3 g-Total carbohydrates g-VS−1 h−1), was 71.4% of the maximum value estimated by the model, indicating close agreement between the values for hydrogen produced based on variations in sOLR that GDC0199 occur during APBR operation. Hafez et al. (2010) suggested sOLR values between 0.17 and 0.24 g-Carbohydrate g-VS−1 h−1 in continuous stirred reactors applied to produce hydrogen using a glucose-based lab-made wastewater as a substrate at 37 °C. The authors also reported inhibition by excess substrate under a wide range of sOLR (0.33 and 1.17 g-Carbohydrate g-VS−1 h−1). Such range includes the experimental and optimum sOLR values obtained in this work. However, it is important to highlight that in packed-bed reactors, biomass growth rates and HRT are independent of each other, which facilitate maintaining long solids retention time (SRT), and thus, higher substrate saturation constant and inhibition by excess substrate constant may be achieved in this type of reactor in comparison to the CSTR. Furthermore, the temperature is another factor to be accounted. In accordance to Pan et al. (2008), thermophilic fermentation responds more stably to the increase of substrate concentration to a fixed microorganism concentration than the mesophilic one, i.e., higher sOLR can be applied in packed-bed reactors operating with higher temperatures.
Fig. 3. N-DBPs of SMPs under various conditions. Error bars represent the standard deviation based on triplicate analyses. (NS = normal state, HA = high ammonia content, HS = high salinity, HM = high level of heavy metal, HT = high temperature.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The amount of N-DBPs generated under HT condition was only 2.5 times of that Rapamycin under NS, much less than the increase of C-DBPs, indicating that SMPs under HT condition contained more precursors of C-DBPs than ones of N-DBPs. According to previous studies  and , the amount of N-DBPs formed in the chlorination process is related to the DON levels in SMPs samples. Therefore, higher N-DBPs observed under HA, HS and HT conditions may be due to high levels of DON under these conditions as well (Table 1). This could be confirmed indirectly by the low production of N-DBPs under HM condition, in which the DON level was only half of acid rain in NS condition.
2.4. Chemical analysis
To record chromatographic and spectrophotometric readings and to determine Panobinostat degree of OXA removal, the formation of oxidants and antimicrobial activity, samples were taken from the reactor at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. 3 mL of sample were taken for readings of COD and TOC, at times 0, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 480 min. 300 mL of sample were required for BOD5 with sampling time at 0 and 480 min of reaction, which were obtained by performing the experiment several times to generate a composed sample. Sodium bisulfite was used to inactivate the oxidative species generated and then to stop the reaction.
OXA degradation was monitored under isocratic conditions using a Waters liquid chromatograph equipped with a 486 absorbance (UV–vis) detector set at 225 nm, and a LiChrospher® RP18 (250 × 4.6 mm ID) HPLC column. Optimum separation occurred using a mixture of phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol (64:27:9 v/v) in isocratic mode, operating at a flow-rate of 0.6 mL min−1.
Correlations for estimating A66 thermal properties of Ag/WEG50.Thermo-physical propertyCorrelationRefs.Densityρnf=?ρp+(1-?)pbfρnf=?ρp+(1-?)pbf and Heat capacity(ρcp)nf=?(cp)p+(1-?)(ρcp)bf(ρcp)nf=?(cp)p+(1-?)(ρcp)bfViscosityμnfμbf=1+2.5?μbf=(1-?EG)μw+?EGμEG?EG=0.5Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Fig. 3. Experimental thermal conductivity of nanofluid at different temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Therefore, based on the temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles, new correlation for thermal conductivity of nanofluid is sperm proposed as:equation(2)knfkbf=0.981+0.00114×T(°C)+30.661×?(vol.%)where T is temperature and ?? is volume fraction of nanoparticles suspended in WEG50. Also, comparisons have been made to evaluate the accuracy and absolute average deviation of proposed correlation in comparison with Maxwell and Hamilton-Crosser correlations  against experimental data. According to obtained results, A.A.D% for proposed correlation, Maxwell, Hamilton-Crosser is 3.43%, 15.14% and 10.93% respectively (see Fig. 4).
2.2. Experiment process and measurement methodology
The high-frequency pressure in the detonation combustor can be used to compute the transient propagation frequency and velocity of the CRDW, as well as the propagation direction and mode. To acquire the high-frequency pressure in the detonation combustor, PCB sensors (PCB Company, Model 113B24) were installed on the outer wall of the combustor with axial interval of 20 mm. Pressure in detonation combustor (Maxwell Company, Model MPM480) was also measured to see the pressure level, and also to confirm the formation and flameout of the CRDW.
The installation position of the two kinds of transducers VX-809 marked in Fig. 4, with their performances listed in Table 1.
Fig. 4. Installation and location of the Z lines transducers.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Performance parameters of pressure transducers.Maxwell MPM480PCB 113B24Measurement range: 0.2–2 MPa;Sensitivity (±10%): 0.725 mV/kPa;Sensitivity ±10%): 0.5%FS;Sensitivity (±10%): 0.035 kPa;Maximum frequency: 30 kHz;Resonant frequency: ?500 kHz;Actual acquiring Frequency: 500 Hz;Measurement range (for ± 5 V output): 6895 kPa;Rise time: ?1 μs;Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Spray formation characteristics; High speed liquid jet; Dimensionless analysis; Atomization mechanism
The breakup and atomization of high speed liquid jets are highly dynamic processes which are widely encountered in today’s direct-injection gasoline and diesel engines. The spray characteristics such as spray tip penetration, cone angle, and drop size distribution are crucial for engine combustion and emission formation  and . Therefore, understanding the transient spray behavior and its temporal characteristics are essential for developing advanced engine combustion concepts in meeting the ever-stringent fuel efficiency and emission regulations on internal combustion engines.
The objective of the current study A939572 to investigate the transient development of spray formation from a force competition perspective. The time-variant macroscopic spray characteristics were firstly obtained using planar Mie scattering technique. Those spray data were subsequently analyzed to identify different temporal stages of spray formation. Then, the effects of the various forces (inertia, viscous, surface tension, and aerodynamic) on the temporal development of spray characteristics are investigated. The effects of force competition on spray formation are quantified using dimensionless Reynolds number, Weber number and gas-to-liquid density ratio. New correlations between spray characteristics and those dimensionless numbers are established to reveal the physical mechanism of spray formation. Based on those corrections, the complex mechanisms of high pressure spray formation can be explicitly elucidated.
Recently, CHF enhancement has been reported for surfaces with vertically aligned micro/nanostructures such as nanowires  and , micropillars , CNTs  and , and microridges . Researchers have suggested wettability increase, surface area enhancement, and efficient liquid wicking (due to Apicidin presence of vertical micro/nano structures) as the main reasons for CHF enhancement. Particularly, Chu et al.  and Zou et al.  presented interesting explanations for CHF enhancement on the surfaces they developed. Based on Kandlikar’s theory  (Eq. (8)), Chu et al.  hypothesized that micropillar structures can enhance the length of the liquid–vapor–solid triple contact line and consequently, the increase in solid–liquid adhesion force, which contributes to CHF enhancement.equation(8)qCHF″=hlgρg0.51+cosβ162π+π4(1+cosβ)cos?1/2σg(ρl-ρg)1/4where β is the dynamic receding contact angle and ? is the inclination angle of the heater surface to the horizontal base.